Fort Davis National Historic Site began as a border post in October 1854 in the mountains of West Texas. The Red River, which flows into the Mississippi from the Confederate-controlled region, served as a supply route stretching back to Jefferson, Texas, and the Transmississippi River and its tributaries formed the basis for the rest of the southern military machine, as it contained the manpower and material it needed.
The impressive monuments erected by the Lone Star State, such as the Fort Davis National Historic Site, mark the end of the Civil War and the beginning of a new era in Texas history. American soldiers, many of whom had taken up combat and had to do their bit behind the Confederate lines.
In February 1862, S. Grant won the Battle of Gettysburg, one of the most important battles of the Civil War. With that victory behind him, Grant focused on the remaining rebel areas in Texas, such as Fort Davis, Fort Hood and Fort Sumter.
Realising that an attack on the west side of the river had the best chance of victory, Grant kept the supply base at Milliken's Bend and moved south to Vicksburg, Louisiana, on this side of the river. On May 1, he won the Battle of Port Gibson, the Confederacy was effectively split in half, and the Union controlled the entire Mississippi. Gen. William T. Sherman was moved downstream by Navy transport and approached Vickersburg from the Mississippi Bayou, which was advancing south along the Mississippi Central Railroad. Grant moved north and marched along the vital supply line that connected Vickburg to Jackson.
Once lost, the river became inaccessible and the South's limited resources were diluted. This made the Battle of Vickersburg even more important than the Battle of Port Gibson and made it the most important battle in the Confederate War.
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President James K. Polk promised Davis weapons if he remained in Congress, and was placed accordingly. Anticipating Mississippi's secession, Davis sent a telegraph message to Governor John J. Pettus saying, "I believe Mississippi needs me. On May 17, President Polk Davis offered $1,000 for his services in the fight to secede Mississippi from the United States.
Watts resigned as attorney general to take over as Alabama governor, and George Davis of North Carolina took his place. In recognition of Davis' military service, Governor Albert G. Brown of Mississippi appointed Davis governor, who died on May 1, 1847.
When Pemberton's discouraged army came to Vicksburg, many women, children, and other noncombatants tried to leave the country, but many had to return. When the Union troops under Ulysses S. Grant were about to take Richmond, Davis escaped and left the Richmond-Danville Railroad. The Confederate troops withdrew from Vickersburg, and the road through the city led Grant's army east, and Grant captured the entire Confederate army. That led to the latest attack, further paralyzing the South; nearly 30,000 Confederates were released on parole, and many returned to their homes in North Carolina.
US President Abraham Lincoln said the fort was the key to winning the war in Mississippi, and Confederate President Jefferson Davis described it as "the nail that holds the two halves of the rebel nation together head to head. Vicksburg was, as he put it, the key to the Union's taking control of the river. Cattle drivers crowded and swam animals from South Texas to feed the hungry rebels, but they did not swim with them.
In June 1862, Davis was forced to name General Robert E. Lee, who replaced the injured Josephine Johnston, as his successor. When Lee lost at Gettysburg in July 1863, Vicksburg fell simultaneously, and the Union took control of the Mississippi, splitting the Confederacy. Early on, he believed in federal military rule and condemned it privately, but kept quiet about his views publicly. Grant founded his Tennessee army in Holly Springs and received enough support to secure victory at the Battle of Vickersburg, the first major victory of his war.
Louisville - Nashville Railroad cars traveled to Beauvoir and drove to the Battle of Vickersburg, the first major battle of the Civil War, on July 14, 1863.